At the Summer School 2018, renowned experts will give participants an insight into cutting edge topics under the key heading of

IT Security and Artificial Intelligence.

IT Security and AI make up two of the Summer School’s four Topic Blocks, each of which will be covered over two days by a mix of lectures on the topic by a top-class lecturer and presentations by the participants who will put their own research up for discussion. The Summer School will be interdisciplinary in nature, aiming to provide insights both into computer science research and into the legal challenges that follow.

IT Security

The use of IT systems in our digital society is unavoidable; the use of the internet forms a core element of our personal lifestyles and, to an increasing extent, of essential infrastructures that all of us rely on.

The complexity of these systems, however, makes them (and us) vulnerable. Security loopholes through which attackers can impair their confidentiality, integrity or functionality must therefore be taken extremely seriously. In addition to personal and private data, the risk to financial assets and the identity of individuals is also great. Attacks on critical infrastructures, such as water or electricity supply, can have devastating consequences for the general population.

Accordingly, efforts to master the associated technical and legal problems are extensive. The European NIS Regulation and other, branch specific, legislative acts, (for example in the area of finance with the Payment Services Directive 2 from 2015) raise the legal regulation of IT Security to a new level. Technical research tries to address both application-specific issues and the foundations of secure IT systems.

Data Protection

Data protection belongs to the most intensively and controversially discussed legal topics of current times. With the GDPR, the EU has created a uniform legal framework, the content of which is however based on the Data Protection Regulation of 1995 and which takes the traditional concepts of data protection forward. The US-American legal system, on the other hand, lacks a similar data protection system. Rather than having general regulation, the reliance in the US is on specific rules, for example for the protection of consumers—there is more emphasis on transparency than on private data protection (“data minimisation”). Japan has recently passed modern Data Protection legislation which is clearly based on the Data Protection Regulation but which sets its own priorities und seeks to achieve a compromise between the need for data protection and the use of the data. Privacy Enhancing Technologies complement legal data protection measures by providing (among others) anonymization, data aggregation and enforcement of data processing policies.

Artificial Intelligence

There is no doubt that Artificial Intelligence is one of the biggest challenges faced by our society today and the scope of its use is enormous.

Automated processes will increasingly be replaced by autonomous systems in the coming years; Autonomous systems will change our society forever. Studies and surveys predict that humans will progressively be replaced by machines.

At the same, classical programming will increasingly be replaced by self-learning systems—“machine learning” has potential which could not have been imagined just a few years ago. Examples such as “AlphaGo” and “DeepBlue”, while limited in scope, show that machines can be better at learning than humans are. Time and again, machine learning algorithms are applied to new and ever more challenging application domains.

These developments can be met with positive expectations: aspects such as the reduction of the physical burden on workers, the possibility to work more efficiently and a fall in the number of accidents through the use of autonomous vehicles, describe the hopes which can be pinned on the use of autonomous systems.

However, the replacement of humans by machines brings with it existential fears: the change to daily work and the loss of jobs to the complete loss of self-determination are just some examples of the undesired or uncertainty-creating consequences of the increasing automisation of our world.

Legal Tech

The key word “Legal Tech” describes technology which could be significant for legal processes. The most well- known example is the Blockchain technology, which is not only the technical basis for a novel electronic currency (Bitcoin) but is also instrumental in deliberations about new forms of co-operation. Contracts could be concluded as "smart contracts" with the use of Blockchains, companies will no longer be controlled by a board of directors but by the use of an algorithm. Artificial intelligence, as described above, is also likely to have an impact on businesses and the legal system.

Legal processes and applications are changing massively under the influence of such technologies and this is calling the existing legal regulation into question. At the same time, technology has to adapt to the requirements of the legal framework. The technologies’ risks and limitations have to be well understood to be able to benefit from their chances.